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Azelaic Acid (123-99-9)

Azelaic Acid Chemical Structure

What is Azelaic Acid?

Azelaic acid or Nonanedioic acid, is an alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acid. It is a naturally occurring organic compound found in grains such as wheat, rye, and barley and is industrially produced by the ozonolysis of oleic acid. It is a versatile agent in the treatment of various skin conditions.

Brand names for azelaic acid include Dermaz 99, Crema Pella Perfetta (micronized azelaic acid, kojic dipalmitate, and liquorice extract), Azepur99, Azetec99, Azaclear (azelaic acid and niacinamide), AzClear Action, Azelex, White Action cream, Finacea, Finevin, Melazepam, Skinoren, Ezanic, Azelac, Azaderm, (Acnegen, Eziderm, Acnicam, Azelexin in Pakistan).

Macsen Laboratories is the leading supplier of Azelaic Acid with ISO certification.
Name of Product Azelaic Acid
IUPAC Name nonanedioic acid
Synonyms Finacea; Anchoic acid; Azelex; Lepargylic acid; 1,7-Heptanedicarboxylic acid; Skinoren; 1,9-Nonanedioic acid
CAS No 123-99-9
Molecular Formula C9H16O4
Molecular Weight 188.22 g/mol
Pubchem CID 2266

Chemical Properties

SR. No Criteria Limit/Specification
1 Appearance (Form) Solid Crystalline Powder
2 Appearance (Color) White to Off-white
3 Solubility Soluble in hot water, alcohol and organic solvents
Slightly soluble in ethyl ether, benzene, DMSO
4 Density 1.443 g/mL
5 Melting Point 105-110°C
6 Water content (% w/w) NMT 0.5%
7 Loss on drying (at 60-65°C) NMT 0.5%
8 Residue on ignition (% w/w) NMT 0.1%


Azelaic acid has several dermatological uses due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and comedolytic properties. It’s used in various formulations, including creams, gels, and foams, for the treatment of a range of skin conditions. Some of the primary uses of azelaic acid are as follows:

  • It is employed in treating mild to moderate acne, both comedonal and inflammatory acne, by killing the bacteria that infect pores and decreasing the production of keratin. It is used topically at a 15-20% concentration.
  • It reduces inflammation and redness associated with rosacea (a chronic skin condition that causes redness and pimples on the face).
  • Azelaic acid is effective in treating hyperpigmentation conditions, including melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, by inhibiting tyrosinase, an enzyme involved in melanin production, thus reducing pigmentation.

Apart from the above-mentioned cosmetic uses, azelaic acid also finds some industrial applications. Lubricant industries utilize it as a thickening agent in lithium complex grease. Azelaic acid reacts with hexamethylenediamine to produce Nylon-6,9, a plastic with specialized applications.

Side effects

Some of the side effects associated with the use of azelaic acid are as follows –

  • Skin irritation
  • Skin dryness or redness
  • Hives and itching
  • Peeling skin at the site of application


Q. What does azelaic acid do?

Azelaic acid is a multifunctional skincare ingredient with several beneficial actions on the skin. It reduces inflammation, fights acne-causing bacteria, unclogs pores, lightens hyperpigmentation and improves overall skin texture.

Q. Can you use azelaic acid with retinol?

Azelaic acid and retinol can be used together in skincare routine. When used together, they can enhance each other’s effects, targeting acne, hyperpigmentation, and signs of aging more effectively.

Q. Does azelaic acid cause purging?

Azelaic acid generally does not cause skin purging, however, individual reactions to skincare products can vary.

Q. Is azelaic acid an exfoliant?

While azelaic acid has some exfoliating benefits due to its effect on skin cell turnover, it is not primarily categorized as an exfoliant.

Q. Can you use azelaic acid with vitamin C?

Combined use of azelaic acid and vitamin C can be beneficial due to their complementary effects on the skin.

Q. Can you use azelaic acid with tretinoin?

Azelaic acid and tretinoin can be used together, as one applied after another.

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