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Lithium Iron Phosphate (15365-14-7)

Chemical Structure of Lithium Iron Phosphate

What is Lithium Iron Phosphate?

Lithium iron phosphate, a member of the olivine mineral family, is an inorganic crystalline compound with exceptional properties that make it a preferred choice for various stationary energy storage applications. It is composed of lithium (Li), iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), and oxygen (O). It is known for its remarkable ability to endure a high number of charge and discharge cycles, making it ideal for applications where longevity is crucial.

The product is currently under development. Samples are available from R&D.
Name of Product Lithium Iron Phosphate
IUPAC Name lithium;iron(2+);phosphate
Synonyms Lithium ferro-phosphate (LFP); Lithium iron(II) phosphate
CAS No 15365-14-7
Molecular Formula FeLiPO4
Molecular Weight 157.8 g/mol
Pubchem CID 15320824

Chemical Properties

SR. No Criteria Limit/Specification
1 Appearance (Form) Solid Powder
2 Appearance (Colour) Grey, Red-Grey, Brown or Black
3 Solubility Practically insoluble in water, diluted acids, and most common organic solvents
4 Melting Point >300℃
5 Density 3.6 g/cm3

Mechanism of action

During the charging process, lithium ions are driven by the electric field force to enter the electrolyte from the surface of the lithium iron phosphate crystal. These lithium ions then traverse the separator, moving towards the surface of the graphite crystal, where they become embedded within the graphite lattice. This process results in the conversion of lithium iron phosphate into iron phosphate.
Conversely, during discharge, lithium ions are de-intercalated from the graphite crystal, entering the electrolyte. They pass through the separator, migrate to the surface of the lithium iron phosphate crystal, and subsequently re-intercalate into the lattice of the lithium iron phosphate.


Lithium Iron Phosphate is used as a component in Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) batteries. It is a cathode material known for its stability, safety, and high energy density. Some of the common uses of LFP batteries are –

  • LFP batteries are increasingly used in electric vehicles (electric buses and two-wheelers) because of their excellent safety profile and long cycle life.
  • They are employed in stationary energy storage systems for residential, commercial, and grid-level applications. They store excess energy from renewable sources like solar and wind for later use, helping to stabilize the electrical grid and reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Some portable electronic devices, such as power banks and rechargeable flashlights, also use LFP batteries.
  • LFP batteries are employed in cell towers and base stations to ensure reliable power backup in remote locations.
  • They are also used in certain aerospace applications due to their ability to operate over a wide temperature range and their safety characteristics.


Q. Are lithium iron phosphate batteries safe?

LiFePO4 batteries stand out as the safest variant among lithium batteries due to their resistance to overheating and their ability to withstand punctures without igniting. Furthermore, their cathode material is non-toxic, ensuring they have no adverse environmental or health-related implications.

Q. How to charge lithium iron phosphate battery?

For charging a LiFePO4 Battery pack, it is advisable to employ the CCCV charging method, which stands for constant current followed by constant voltage. It is recommended to use a constant current of 0.3 times the battery’s capacity (0.3C) during the initial charging phase. Then, when transitioning to the constant voltage phase, the recommended voltage is 3.65 volts. This entails a controlled current rate of 0.3C during the constant current stage. For more detailed information, you may refer here.

Q. Is lithium iron phosphate the same as lithium ion?

While both lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and traditional lithium-ion batteries share the use of lithium ions as a fundamental principle and fall under the broad category of lithium-ion batteries, they are not the same. The main differences lie in their chemical composition, safety characteristics, thermal stability, cycle life, and energy density. LiFePO4 batteries are known for their safety, thermal stability, and long cycle life.

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